Conscientious objection in France

At the outbreak of the First World War conscientious objectors broadly formed two social groups: ‘Politically active’ and ‘Religiously active’.

Learn more, in this exploration of French conscientious objection in the First World War: motivations, politics, party support & context.

Written by our French researcher Daisy Gudmunsen.

Conscientious objection in Germany

At least 200,000 soldiers refused their military “duty” and without soldiers, there was no war.

Find out why people refused to serve their country, how they avoided military service and what punishments were issued for disobedience.

Written by our German researcher Kristin Winkler.

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